# Introduction to Econometrics

Part A:

Presenting the research question and its economic importance A1. Introduce the research questions in the article. 2. Explain the explanatory variables and the desired explanatory variables in order to investigate these questions. 3. Explain why it is difficult to investigate these questions empirically. What are the main challenges for accepting causal impact in research on this topic. 4. What is the methodology that researchers propose in order to have a causal effect. 5. Explain briefly what the main results of the article are. It is not necessary to state all the results, concentrate on the main findings (important note: the explanations should be in your own words – no translations of sentences from the article into Hebrew will be accepted. The answers to the questions presented in this section are possible Answer as a summary and not as answers to questions.

Part B

Performing empirical work

6. Before you can access the empirical work you must conduct a descriptive investigation of the data. Create a table showing the averages of the key variables in the file. Regarding the categorical variables find a way to present them. In the statistical description look at mean, standard deviation of mean, median, minimum and maximum.

7. Trends Over Time – Look at the graphs shown in the article on page 2429 (Figure 2). Discuss the various trends shown in the four graphs.

Part C –

We will now concentrate on the research question

8. Write a simple model) contains only an explanatory variable and explanatory variables, without supervisory variables (of your choice to explore the research question. Specifically, state whether you chose to separate the effects for the first three years after the policy adoption and subsequent years, explain why you chose to do so.

9. Indicate for your model who the “treated” group is and who the control group is and explain why.

10. Estimate the model you chose in Section 8, report the results of the estimation in Table 1 below and explain the significance of each of the estimates with reference to their significance and size.

11. State the overall effects of the adoption of both policies for women and men. For each effect, state explicitly what components make it up and perform a hypothesis test to see if the effect is different from zero.

12. Examine whether the assumption of identical homoscedasticity is met with the help of the appropriate test. If it does not exist, explain why, what are the consequences of this and re-estimate the model after the appropriate correction (if you re-assessed the model, add the estimates to the appropriate place in the table, if the column cannot be left blank).

13. Add to the simple model, additional supervisory variables according to your logic) New variables can be generated and the authors can be selected in the article (write the new model and estimate it – add the estimation results in the appropriate place in the table) If necessary, make the necessary correction The estimators (. Justify the choice of explanatory variables.

14. State the overall effects of the adoption of both policies for women and men. For each effect, state explicitly what coefficients make it up and perform a hypothesis test to see if the effect is non-zero.

In order to give a causal interpretation to the estimates you have received of the clock stop policy on tenure rates, the trend of tenure rates before applying the policy must be the same between universities that have adopted and universities that have not adopted them.

15. Do you think this assumption holds?

16. How can this assumption be tested? Describe how and test it. Report and discuss the results you received.

Part D –

Additional explanatory variables

17. How to check whether the policy of stopping the clock has an effect on the acceptance of tenure in each university (not necessarily in the university where the individual started the tenure track? Write the model and estimate it. In this section it is not necessary to report all estimates, but report directly the policy types for women and men are in the table below

18. Have your say on the results you got in section 17.

19. Acceptance of tenure at a university relies heavily on publications, since it takes a long time to publish an article and success in publishing can be the path through which the policy affects the acceptance of tenure. How will you check if a watch stop policy has an impact on the number of posts that men and women are able to post? Write the model and estimate it. In this section it is not necessary to report all estimates, but to report directly on the overall effects of the adoption of both policies for women and men in the table (note that in this section there are a number of appropriate explanatory variables in the data file. Choose one and explain why you took it.)

20. Have your say on the results you got in section 19